開山祖師開示

惟覺安公老和尚

「佛法以人為根本,人以心為根本,心以覺悟為根本,要掌握這三者;掌握住了,無論是人生也好,做任何事情也好,這一生就不會空虛、不會煩惱,找到了人生的方向。」

諦觀無常契真心

CONTEMPLATE IMPERMANENCE TO REALIZE THE TRUE MIND

惟覺安公老和尚開示
Translated from a Dharma lecture by Grand Master Wei Chueh

不生不滅的心,是根本也是永恆

The mind that neither arises nor ceases is fundamental and infinite

佛法說「無常」的道理,目的即是從觀天地、世界的無常,進而了悟當下這念真常本心。天地間一切眾生依、正二報有形有相者,包括山河大地、生命中的衣、食、住、行等,都是「無常」。這一切都不是永恆存在的,有生必有死,有成必有壞,只有這一念心才是根本、才是永恆。如果不了解天地世界無常的道理,而想從中求得一個不死的境界,絕對是找不到的。

Buddhism teaches us that the aim of the principle of “impermanence” is to realize this true, permanent, and original mind by contemplating the impermanence of heaven and earth.  All sentient beings, all forms and characteristics, which include all the mountains, rivers, earth, clothing, food, housing, and transportation are “impermanent.”  They do not last forever.  Where there is life there is death; where there is achievement there is failure; only this mind is fundamental and infinite.  If we do not realize the truth that heaven and earth and everything in the whole world are impermanent, and hope to seek a state where there is no death, we definitely will never find it.

觀無常

Contemplating Impermanence

假使無法當下契悟這念本具的真心,就必須「觀無常」──由觀生滅而契悟不生不滅的境界,所謂「諸行無常,是生滅法,生滅滅已,寂滅為樂。」契悟了不生不滅的這念心,才是最真實。

If we are unable to realize this original true mind at this moment, we must “contemplate impermanence.”  By contemplating birth and death we will realize the state of “no birth or death”. This is, “All things are impermanent; this is the dharma of birth and death.   Extinguish birth and death and attain the joy of nirvana.”  To realize the mind that is free of birth and death is the highest truth.

「觀」是用心思惟,以般若的智慧思惟「無常」的道理。首先,觀外面的世界有成、住、壞、空。這個世界最終會被大三災、小三災所毀滅──在初禪天的天人,仍有瞋心,所以會感得火災;二禪有貪心,會感水災;三禪仍有出入息,會感風災。天上都保不住了,何況是人間?

“Contemplation” is to think and reflect; it is to reflect on the truth of impermanence with prajna wisdom.  First, we must contemplate that the external world has arising, abiding, disintegration, and emptiness.  This world will eventually be destroyed by the three major disasters and three minor disasters — the heavenly beings in the first dhyana heaven still have minds of anger, therefore they will feel the disasters of fire; those in the second dhyana heaven have minds of greed, so they will feel the disasters of floods; those in the third dhyana heaven still have breath and can feel the disasters of wind storms.  Even those in the heavens are imperiled, so how could people on earth be safe?

為什麼要先觀外面世界的無常?因為這個世界的財色名利、燈紅酒綠,種種欲樂,讓我們牽腸掛肚,產生種種執著、障礙,一旦了悟無常,了解這個世界最後終會壞滅,一切歸於空。如此,還有什麼可罣礙?

Why should we first contemplate the impermanence of the external world?  It is because this world’s wealth, lust,  name,  profit, debauchery, and pleasure, bring us worries and unrest, leading to all kinds of attachments and obstacles.  When we understand “impermanence” we will realize that this world will eventually perish and everything will return to emptiness.  So what is there to worry about?

再者,思惟每個人都會老、病、死──人老了,頭髮變白、皮膚變皺、彎腰駝背,龍鍾老態;一朝病了、死了,屍體又髒又臭,最後只剩一具白骨。此時,那裡還有什麼冤、親、愛、憎,全部都一掃而空。

Furthermore, we should realize that everyone will grow old, get sick, and die — when we grow old, the hair turns white, the skin becomes wrinkled, the back becomes bent, we exhibit signs of senility; one day, we will get sick and die.  The corpse is filthy and fetid — eventually only a pile of white bones remain.  At that time, where are the enemies, the loved ones, the craving, the hatred — all are completely swept away.

最後,再觀這念心也是無常──早上起床,念頭一動,就是生;起床後,開始穿衣,起床的念頭滅了,穿衣的念頭生起;接著著襪,則穿衣的念頭又滅了,著襪的念頭又生起。

Finally, we contemplate further that this mind is also impermanent.  When we get up in the morning, as our thoughts arise, that is birth; after we get out of bed and start getting dressed, the thought of getting up ceases, and the thought of getting dressed arises; we then put on our socks, and the thought of getting dressed ceases, the thought of putting on our socks arises.

所以從早到晚,念頭都是在活動,念念遷流,新新不住,就是無常。假使不知道觀心念無常,就會認為穿衣,是我在穿衣;著襪,是我在著襪,這就是我執。

Therefore from morning till night, our thoughts never rest — they are always flowing, constantly undergoing renewal.  This is “impermanence.”  If we don’t know to contemplate the impermanence of our thoughts, we will think that it is the “I” who is getting dressed, it is the “I” who is putting on socks.  This is attachment to the self.

觀心無常,始終注意這念心的生滅──念頭生起是「生」,念頭去了是「滅」,注意心的生滅,起了妄念馬上覺照。最後,忽然一念相應,這念心達到沒有生滅,此時整個身體都不存在了,這念心廣大無礙,內內外外都看得清清楚楚,這就是「寂滅現前」。

Contemplating that the mind is empty, we must always pay attention to the arising and ceasing of our thoughts—when a thought arises that is “birth,” when a thought ceases, that is “death.”   When we pay attention to the arising and ceasing of our thoughts, we can immediately detect delusive thoughts when they arise.  Finally, this mind arrives at the state of neither arising nor ceasing.  At that time our body no longer exists; this mind can expand without obstructions and see clearly both within and without.  This is the manifestation of nirvana.

這個觀法,要靠自己平常多練習,功夫純熟了,慢慢地就得到定境;進一步,與無為心、不生不滅心、寂滅心相應,此時禪定現前,就能體會佛法的真實性。

We must constantly practice this method of contemplation.  It depends on our own effort to practice constantly.  When we perfect this practice, we will gradually arrive at a state of samadhi.  Furthermore, we will be in accord with a mind of wu wei, a mind that neither arises nor ceases, a mind of calmness and extinction.   Samadhi then manifests and we will realize the true nature of Buddhism.

尋求安身立命之所

Finding a place of peace and stability

既然世界上的一切都是無常,人生在世,最後都是一場空,沒有什麼可執著、可留戀的,這樣看來,人生豈不是很消極、悲觀?所以進一步,要在生滅中找到不生不滅性,這才是真正安身立命的地方。

Since everything in the world is impermanent, our life on this earth finally ends up with nothing (emptiness), so there is nothing worth clinging to, nothing we should be reluctant to part with.  When viewed this way, life seems to be very passive and pessimistic; therefore, we must go one step further and find the nature of “no” birth and death in birth and death.”  This is finding the true place of peace and stability in life.

《楞嚴經》中,波斯匿王請示佛陀:「世尊!您講的生滅心,我能了解;但不生滅心在生滅心當中,這個道理我不明白,恭請世尊慈悲開示。」

世尊告訴波斯匿王:「大王!您六十二歲看恆河水,與三歲時看恆河水相較──三歲時的童顏紅潤、光澤,而今六十二歲的容貌已是變老變皺;而三歲時看恆河水的 心至今卻沒有變壞,沒有老少之分。大王!色身會變皺,是無常,屬於生滅;心不會變皺,是常,屬於不生不滅。大王!色身雖有生有滅,受無常生死,但這念心是 不生不滅,不受生死。」

In the Shurangama Sutra, King Prasenajit asked the Buddha, “World Honored One!  I can understand your teaching of the mind’s arising and ceasing, but I don’t understand what is“a mind that has no birth or death in a mind that has birth and death’ — I respectfully ask the World Honored One to explain this to us.”  The World Honored One told King Prasenajit, “Great King! When you see the waters of the Ganges River now that you are 62 years old, is it different from the waters of the Ganges that you saw when you were three years old?  When you were three years old, your youthful face was rosy, smooth, and radiant, but now at 62, your features have become old and wrinkled.  Yet your mind that saw the waters of Ganges has not changed since you were three years old; it is no different in youth and in old age. Great King!  The body can become wrinkled, it is impermanent, subject to birth and death, but this mind can never become wrinkled, it is eternal, it is not subject to birth and death. Great King, the physical body arises and ceases, is impermanent and is subject to birth and death, but this mind neither arises nor ceases, it is not subject to birth and death.”

每個人都有生滅心,知道生滅中有個不生不滅性,這是最寶貴的。生滅心中有不生不滅性,如金在礦,有了金礦要找到真金,必須就要披沙揀金 ── 生滅心(貪瞋癡 的心)是金礦,生滅心(金礦)中有不生滅性(真金),即貪瞋癡裡面有自己的佛性。若能披沙揀金(起觀行去貪瞋癡)就能得真金(成佛),否則礦還是礦,始終 得不真金。所以,修觀行,目的就是在轉識成智,了生脫死。

Everyone has a mind that arises and ceases; we should know that in birth and death there is a nature that neither arises nor ceases.  This is most precious.  When there is no birth and death in the mind that arises and ceases, it is like the gold within the ore. When we wish to find the true gold in the gold ore, we must refine the ore from a large amount of impurities — the mind that arises and ceases (the mind of greed, anger, and ignorance) is the gold ore.  The mind that neither arises nor ceases (the true pure gold) that is in the mind that arises and ceases (the gold ore) is our own Buddha nature in the mind of greed anger and ignorance.  If we can refine gold from its impurities, (use “contemplation on practice”to eradicate greed anger and ignorance) we will obtain pure gold (attain Buddhahood).  Otherwise, the ore is still the ore, we will never obtain pure gold.  Therefore, the object of “contemplation on practice” is to transform knowledge into wisdom and transcend birth and death.

契悟「涅槃寂靜」

Realizing the extinction and stillness of nirvana

無論是大乘、小乘,都要契悟這念不生不滅、涅槃寂靜的心,才是最究竟。要達到「涅槃寂靜」必須修觀行法門,功夫相應了,對於外面的境界,才能看淡;看淡了,方能看破;能看破,進一步才放得下。

Whether our practice is based on the Great Vehicle or the Small Vehicle, we must realize this mind that neither arises nor ceases, this still and serene mind of nirvana—this is most fundamental. To attain the stillness of nirvana, we must cultivate the method of “contemplation on practice.”   When this corresponds with our cultivation, we will be able to look at all external phenomena lightly.  Then we can penetrate all dharmas and eventually be able to let go.  If we cannot look at things lightly, even though we tell ourselves not to, we still cannot help thinking about it.  This is the seed of the eighth consciousness—clinging to external forms and thinking they are real, and being unable to see through them or let go.

否則,看不淡,雖然告訴自己不要想,卻偏偏要想,這是由於八識田中的種子,執著外面的境界為實有,以致看不破、放不下。所以,「無常觀」即是透過思惟慢慢地分析,了達萬法皆是無常,虛妄不實,這就是般若智慧、就是內照、就是觀行。「無常觀」修習久了,自然就能看破、放下。

Therefore “contemplating impermanence” is to penetrate and gradually analyze our thoughts in order to realize that all dharmas are impermanent, illusive, and unreal. This is prajna wisdom, this is to reflect inward. If we practice “contemplating impermanence”, we will eventually see through and let go of all things.

「無常觀」的法門,無論是出家、在家都可以修習,經由此法門,就能契悟這念不生不滅的心性。契悟了以後,這念心時時安住在正念、安住在定慧,這念心不攀緣、不顛倒,時時清楚、明白,能作主,這就是智慧心。有了智慧心,就能觸物起照,照見外面的順、逆境,一切色、聲、香、味、觸、法都是無常,就能對治心中的貪瞋癡慢疑邪見等煩惱。如此,心就能得解脫、得自在。

The expedient means of “contemplating impermanence” can be practiced by both laity and monastics.  From this practice, we will be able to realize the nature of this mind that neither arises nor ceases.  After we realize this, this mind constantly abides in right mindfulness, in samadhi and wisdom, without clinging, without confusion, always lucid, clear, and master of itself.  This is the mind of wisdom and compassion.  When we have this mind of wisdom and compassion, in our contact with external objects, we are able to perceive clearly that prosperity and adversity, all forms, sound, smell, taste, and touch are impermanent.  Then we can overcome this mind’s vexations of greed, anger, ignorance, and erroneous views.  Then our mind can attain liberation and be free.  

(中台山月刊67期  taken from Chung Tai Magazine, issue #67)

 

為什麼要鼓勵大家誦《金剛經》?

我們心中的妄想很多,要用金剛般若的智慧,才能轉識成智,化有為空。所有的病,都是妄想所生;所以佛經講,一切業障海,皆由妄想生。誦《金剛經》就是為對治、化除妄想,5萬、10萬遍誦完了,這一念清淨心,寂滅心就慢慢慢慢現前。

誦《金剛經》是修定,進一步契悟「無住心」是解脫。大眾要老老實實用功修行,就是要誦《金剛經》。

為什麼要鼓勵大家誦《金剛經》? 金剛經?

Because we have piles of delusions in our mind, we need the prajna wisdom of the 金剛經 to turn consciousness into wisdom and to empty our attachments.  All afflictions arise from our mind, just as said in the sutras: The oceans of karmic obstacles all originate from our deluded thoughts.

Chanting the 金剛經 is a practice that helps to transform and eliminate deluded thoughts. After we chant it for fifty thousand times, one hundred thousand times, this mind of purity and stillness will gradually manifest itself.

Therefore, chanting the 金剛經 is a way to cultivate samadhi; it helps us move forward to realize the mind of non-attachment and attain liberation.  If we want to honestly and earnestly cultivate, we need to chant the 金剛經.  



中台山開山祖師
中台山開山祖師

惟覺安公老和尚
惟覺安公老和尚